14. The error connected with wrong definition of the status of « universalis »

The reality problem universalis (that is generalizations) was the basic in medieval philosophy, and it consisted in a question, what objects actually really exists. Whether there are, for example, birds in general, or there are only separate copies of birds, and all kinds, sorts and families of birds - no more than a conditional invention of human reason? One of possible answers is that objectively there is our ability to distinguish birds and not-birds. Moreover, each bird too possesses this quality, and owing to it universalis exist objectively. In reasoning on risks the ambiguity of universalis creeps as follows: properties of one object are transferred on a certain class as though this class was object. Then there are reasoning like «America wants …» or «it is peculiar to Russian …» whereas behind these concepts there is not a uniform object, but the set, which exact definition depends on the observer. Any discussions about the politician are poisoned by such shift. Arguing on an artificial intellect is easy to make such mistake as it is not clear, whether there is a speech about one device or about a class of objects.