12. Absence of clear understanding of to whom instructions on global risks are directed

          It is not clear exactly who should be heeding our advice to deal with global risks. There are many different parties and their relative ability to influence the global situation is unknown. Many parties may underestimate their own influence, or estimate it correctly but hesitate to do anything because they see it as so small. Then everyone will do nothing, the bystander effect kicks in again, and we may may the price. An important part of risk research should be identifying to whom literature on global risks should be directed. High-ranking military and intelligence personnel seem like obvious candidates, but there are many others, including rank-and-file scientists of all kinds.